The five Nations (later six) were subdivided into tribes, each having a heraldic insignia, or totem.Woodland medicine and the knowledge to use it was not discovered anew by spiritually powerful practitioners but was considered to have been provided to tribal ancestors by the Creator in the ancient past and subsequently handed down across the generations. The success of a healer in this context is based in large part, on personal power obtained through direct encounters with sacred powers.
The Battle of Little Bighorn (1876) was one of the greatest Native American victories. Having achieved peace themselves, they could not comprehend why the English were quarrelling with one another, and had no desire to be drawn into what they perceived as a civil war.By these Americans were forbidden to export their products to other countries than England, to buy the products of other countries except from English traders, to manufacture goods which could compete in the colonies with English importations or to ship goods from colony to colony except in British vessels; while a high protective tariff prevented the colonists from selling grain and other raw products to England.I do by these present require, all officers of the United States, as well civil as military, and all other citizens and inhabitants thereof, to govern themselves according to the treaties and act aforesaid, as they will answer the contrary at their peril.The well-known vision quest is a manifestation of this principle.George Washington, 1790: A later proclamation regarding the Indian Treaties: Whereas it hath at this time become peculiarly necessary to warn the citizens of the United States against a violation of the treaties dating native american indians. The common characteristic to all tribal and regional American Indian medicine traditions is that they were founded on an ecological basis.